Т. А. Meshchurova

ASSESSMENT OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE CITIES OF PERM REGION

Abstract:

The chemicals emitted from stationary and mobile sources into the air in cities have a harmful effect on the population, contributing to the growth of morbidity and mortality and disturbing the natural environment. In Perm Krai, Russia, industrial facilities discharge about 360 chemicals into the air. The airborne pollution mostly comes from the chemical industry, oil and minerals extraction, metallurgical industry, power generation, and transport. This study focused on the assessment of airborne pollution in the cities of Perm Krai. The study used data of the Perm Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, published in annual environmental reports. It was found that the main pollutant emissions from stationary sources are liquid and gaseous substances. The most common emission components are hydrocarbons coming from pipeline transportation facilities. The second most common substance is carbon monoxide emitted by the combustion of various fuels. Gross pollutant emissions tended to increase from 2014 to 2018, with a steady growth of emissions from mobile sources. Airborne pollution was assessed by the comprehensive air quality index, taking into account several sub-stances that make the largest contribution to airborne pollution (this year). The monitoring results from Berezniki, Gubakha, Krasnokamsk, Lysva, Perm, Solikamsk and Tchaikovsky were analyzed. The paper presents the dynamics of the air quality index in these cities from 2008 to 2018. The highest index value (‘very high’) was observed in Solikamsk in 2012; the lowest index value, in Tchaikovsky. The airborne pollution in these cities showed a tendency to decrease over the past six years, possibly, due to the use of more advanced emissions cleaning technologies and the decommissioning of some industrial facilities. The cities that have large industrial companies, such as Perm, Berezniki, Lysva and Solikamsk, experience the greatest environmental burden from stationary sources. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and sulfur dioxide from stationary sources increased from 2016 to 2018, although neither ‘high’, nor ‘very high’ pollution was observed in the cities of Perm Krai from 2013 to 2018.

About the autors:

Meshchurova Tatiana Alexandrovna, ORCID: 0000-0003-2987-2198, Ph.D., Ural Research Institute of Ecology, Perm, Russia, tmeshurova@mail.ru.

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Key words:

air pollution; stationary emissions source; mobile emissions source; environmental monitoring; comprehensive air quality index.