Spichak A.V.

THE ATTITUDE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH TOWARDS THE INFLICTION OF BODILY HARM TO WOMEN BY MEN FROM THE SECULAR AND SPIRITUAL ESTATES IN THE LATE XVIII - EARLY XIX CENTURIES. (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE TOBOLSK SPIRITUAL CONSISTORY)

Abstract:

At the article discussed the legal status of woman against protection from violence by men in Russia in the late XVIII-early XIX centuries. The author presents the results of a study which content the cases of the Tobolsk ecclesiastical consistory about beating women by men from the high classes and clerical order, identifies common features, identifies the stages of proceedings in such cases at that time, and studies the attitude of the Russian Orthodox church to this problem. It was established that the procedure regarding the punishment of men from high classes and clerical order developed according to the established custom and differed only in the absence of a final paragraph - about sending the order to the lead, because of the lead for clerical order were sovereign Lord. Archival documents indicate that the main cause of bodily harm to women by men in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries were old traditions, and the cause was women «forward behavior» against to, as rule, alcohol intoxication. The consequences were different depending on whether the offender and the victim were married. In the absence of aggravating factors, the offender was waiting only for penance. The Russian Orthodox Church punished her accused wars only with a fine and transfer to another village. Therefore during the period under consideration, she was quite loyal to the bodily harm to women by men irrespective from the classes of the latter.

About the autors:

Alexandra Vladimirovna Spichak, Candidate of Historical Sciences, researcher of the re-search laboratory of complex research of social systems

Place of employment:

Nizhnevartovsk State University.

Contacts:

e-mail: spichak-89@mail.ru

Key words:

Russian Orthodox Church; Tobolsk diocese; Tobolsk spiritual consistory; gender-based violence; spiritual and secular departments; beatings; punishment; penance; fine; stages of paperwork