In new for the biosphere, techno-ecosystems, the marginal, contour or marginal biotopes and their population i.e. the biocenoses that live here, often play a determining role for the whole ecosystem and a man. Important for these ecosystems are ecotopic groupings (benthos and periphyton), their heterotrophic component and according to the hydrobiological classification - zoobenthos and zooperiphyton. The studying of these groups was caused by their significant role in the life activity of hydroecosystems as well as by the problems associated with the biological disturbances they cause. To date, there are certain difficulties in the taxonomic identification of benthos and periphyton organisms in general and freshwater bryozoans in particular. It is necessary to take into account the specificity of technical elements that can determine peculiar characteristics of the entire techno-ecosystem. In this sense, the surface of hydroconstructions is quite similar to natural solid substrates. The reservoir has similarities, both with a lake and a river. However, many peculiar characteristics of techno-elements and anthropogenic factors in combination with the natural ones are completely different from the latter, which creates the specificity of techno-ecosystems. The processes occurring in techno-ecosystems are of a dual nature and are determined both by natural and technogenic factors. The influence of natural factors must be taken into account while the technical ones can be regulated to a certain extent.In natural ecosystems, there are some patterns of structural biotopic organization. The combination and interrelation of biotopes is determined by the design and operation mode of technical systems. A lot of topical elements may be absent in techno-ecosystems though they are common in natural ecosystems. At the same time, there are many peculiarities in natural ecosystems. In an artificial watercourse there are no such important elements of the biotope of lotic natural systems as ruts, stretches, meandering and connection with external floodplain reservoirs.In the life of technical reservoirs (techno-ecosystems) changes occur in several phases, each related to the peculiarities of the period of using. The main task of technical hydrobiology is not only to control the impact of technical systems and factors on the natural environment, but to develop principles and methods for managing an integrated techno-ecosystem as well. There are specific organisms (such as sponges, bryozoans) which are extremely rare in the benthos. Reported are data of the first finding of freshwater bryozoan species Plumatella emarginata Allman, 1844 which was found in the Kurchatov reservoir on artificial substrates in 2015.
About the autors:
Valentina Ivanovna Gontar’, Candidate of Biological Scienses, senior researcher laboratory of brackishwater hydrobiology.
Place of employment:
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Text of scientific work: (PDF format)
Plumatella emarginata; freshwater Bryozoa; artificial substrata.